Main Article Content


Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury. TBI is a major public health problem that can lead to long-term disability. This study was performed to cognize the clinical characteristic and parameters that could predict the outcome of TBI patients and become the foundations for public health interventions to help prevent and lower the mortality rates of TBI in other rural and remote areas.

Methods: This research is a retrospective study. Our patient data were collected from Nabire General Hospital medical records from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020. This study included all patients who were diagnosed with TBI and excluded the incomplete data. The study was analyzed using chi-square.

Results: This study shows TBI mostly occurs in men and the peak incidence in aged 17-65 years old and mainly caused by road traffic accidents. Some factors significantly shows correlation to predict worse outcomes in TBI patients are impaired oxygen distribution, low GCS score, history of consuming anticoagulant and antiplatelet, and the different types of brain hemorrhage.

Conclusion: TBI in Papua mostly occurs in men aged between 17-65 years old and road traffic accidents are the main cause. The impaired oxygen distribution, low GCS score, history of consuming anticoagulant and antiplatelet, and the different types of brain hemorrhage were associated with unfavorable outcomes.


Traumatic brain injury Nabire general hospital Retrospective Incidence

Article Details

How to Cite
Negara, I. N. S., Tandisau, J. R., & Nomba, A. (2022). Characteristics and outcome of traumatic brain injury in Nabire General Hospital, Papua, Indonesia. Neurologico Spinale Medico Chirurgico, 5(1), 32-36.


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traumatic brain injury/ concussion. Available from: Accessed August 1, 2021.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Report to congress on traumatic brain injury in the United States: Epidemiology and rehabilitation. National 1. Center for Injury Prevention and Control; Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. Atlanta, GA. 2015.
  3. De Silva MJ, Roberts I, Perel P, et al. Patient outcome after traumatic brain injury in high-, middle- and low-income countries: Analysis of data on 8927 patients in 46 countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38(2):452-458. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyn189
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance report of traumatic brain injury-related hospitalizations and deaths by age group, sex, and mechanism of injury - United States, 2016 and 2017. 2021.
  5. Rosyidi RM, Priyanto B, Laraswati NKP, et al. Characteristics and clinical outcome of traumatic brain injury in Lombok, Indonesia. Interdiscip Neurosurg. 2019;18:100470. DOI: 10.1016/j.inat.2019.04.015
  6. MRC CRASH Trial Collaborators. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: Practical prognostic models based on large cohort of international patients. BMJ. 2008;336(7641):425-429. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39461.643438.25
  7. World Health Organization. Sustainable development goals: Road safety for all. 2019.
  8. Badan Pusat Statistik. Available from: Accessed August 1, 2021.
  9. American College of Surgeons Comittee on Trauma. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) for doctors student course manual. 10th ed. Chicago, IL: American College of Surgeons, 2018.
  10. Mehta R, GP trainee1, Chinthapalli K, consultant neurologist2. Glasgow coma scale explained. BMJ. Published online May 2, 2019:l1296. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.l1296.
  11. Frost RB, Farrer TJ, Primosch M, et al. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the general adult population: A meta-analysis. Neuroepidemiology. 2013;40(3):154-159. DOI: 10.1159/000343275
  12. Lui SK, Fook-Chong SMC, Teo QQ. Demographics of traumatic brain injury and outcomes of continuous chain of early rehabilitation in Singapore. Proc Singap Healthc. 2020;29(1):33-41. DOI: 10.1177/2010105819901137
  13. Haydel MJ, Burns B. Blunt head trauma. In: StatPearls. Stat Pearls Publishing; 2021. Available from: Accessed August 12, 2021.
  14. Ma C, Wu X, Shen X, et al. Sex differences in traumatic brain injury: A multi-dimensional exploration in genes, hormones, cells, individuals, and society. Chin Neurosurg J. 2019;5(1):24. DOI: 10.1186/s41016-019-0173-8
  15. Mollayeva T, Mollayeva S, Colantonio A. Traumatic brain injury: Sex, gender and intersecting vulnerabilities. Nat Rev Neurol. 2018;14(12):711-722. DOI: 10.1038/s41582-018-0091-y
  16. Nik A, shiraz medical university, Sheikh Andalibi MS, et al. The efficacy of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II for predicting hospital mortality of ICU patients with acute traumatic brain injury. Bull Emerg Trauma. 2018;6(2):141-145. DOI: 10.29252/beat-060208
  17. Liew TYS, Ng JX, Jayne CHZ, et al. Changing demographic profiles of patients with traumatic brain injury: An aging concern. Front Surg. 2019;6:37. DOI: 10.3389/fsurg.2019.00037
  18. Taylor CA, Bell JM, Breiding MJ, et al. Traumatic brain injury–related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths — United States, 2007 and 2013. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017;66(9):1-16. DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6609a1
  19. Abdelmalik PA, Draghic N, Ling GSF. Management of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Transfusion (Paris). 2019;59(S2):1529-1538. DOI: 10.1111/trf.15171
  20. Alagoz F, Yildirim AE, Sahinoglu M, et al. Traumatic acute subdural hematomas: Analysis of outcomes and predictive factors at a single center. Turk Neurosurg. 2017;27(2):187-191. DOI: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.15177-15.2
  21. Kalayci M, Aktunç E, Gül S, et al. Decompressive craniectomy for acute subdural haematoma: An overview of current prognostic factors and a discussion about some novel prognostic parametres. JPMA J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63(1):38-49.
  22. Davanzo JR, Sieg EP, Timmons SD. Management of traumatic brain injury. Surg Clin North Am. 2017;97(6):1237-1253. DOI: 10.1016/j.suc.2017.08.001
  23. Vella MA, Crandall ML, Patel MB. Acute management of traumatic brain injury. Surg Clin North Am. 2017;97(5):1015-1030. DOI: 10.1016/j.suc.2017.06.003.
  24. Robba C, Asgari S, Gupta A, et al. Lung injury is a predictor of cerebral hypoxia and mortality in traumatic brain injury. Front Neurol. 2020;11:771. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00771
  25. Reith FCM, Lingsma HF, Gabbe BJ, et al. Differential effects of the glasgow coma scale score and its components: An analysis of 54,069 patients with traumatic brain injury. Injury. 2017;48(9):1932-1943. DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2017.05.038
  26. Scotter J, Hendrickson S, Marcus HJ, et al. Prognosis of patients with bilateral fixed dilated pupils secondary to traumatic extradural or subdural haematoma who undergo surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Emerg Med J EMJ. 2015;32(8):654-659. DOI: 10.1136/emermed-2014-204260
  27. Gutowski P, Meier U, Rohde V, et al. Clinical outcome of epidural hematoma treated surgically in the era of modern resuscitation and trauma care. World Neurosurg. 2018;118:e166-e174. DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.06.147
  28. Baucher G, Troude L, Pauly V, et al. Predictive factors of poor prognosis after surgical management of traumatic acute subdural hematomas: A single-center series. World Neurosurg. 2019;126:e944-e952. DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.02.194
  29. Lenzi J, Caporlingua F, Caporlingua A, et al. Relevancy of positive trends in mortality and functional recovery after surgical treatment of acute subdural hematomas. Our 10-year experience. Br J Neurosurg. 2017;31(1):78-83. DOI: 10.1080/02688697.2016.1226253